Le dernier crâne de M. de Sade (Littérature Française) (French Edition)
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OpenEdition is a web platform for electronic publishing and academic communication in the humanities and social sciences. Desktop version Mobile version. She survived the German occupation in Bordeaux, where she stayed with a friend of her family. After the end of the war Elsa Breuer returned to Paris, where she practised as a Lacanian analyst. One of her analysands was the philosopher and sociologist Georges Lapassade, who, on the recommendation of Jacques Lacan und Daniel Lagache, began a nine-year analysis with Elsa Breuer at the end of the s.
She lost the trial, because she had made the mistake of treating panel patients and signing the forms with "Dr. Breuer", although her Hungarian certificate was not recognised in France. She was sentenced to a fine of more than Francs and could no more practice psychoanalysis. Her father, Georges Khayat, was a gastroenterologist, her mother worked in the legal profession. She grew up in Vincennes, a suburb of Paris, and studied medicine. She underwent psychoanalytic training and became a Lacanian analyst running a successful private practice in the 16th arrondissement of Paris.
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She also worked as a writer and columnist. Among others, she wrote Charlie Divan , a fortnightly column with a wide range of psychological and social issues in the French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo. On 7 January , Elsa Cayat was the only female victim murdered by the brothers Kouachi in their attack on the offices of Charlie Hebdo - presumably because she was Jewish.
She left behind her companion, the Dutch shoe designer Paulus Bolten, and their daughter Hortense. Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel, the daughter of immigrant parents from Russia and Poland, was born in Paris.
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Her father, Jules Smirgel or Smirguel , was an engineer and a painter. Following the war, Janine Chasseguet studied political science diploma in and psychology at the Sorbonne. From to she underwent psychoanalysis with Bela Grunberger , her future husband. Her work has focused on female sexuality, creativity and perversion, narcissism and the ego ideal as well as the application of psychoanalysis to art, literature, film, and politics.
In one of her first papers Feminine guilt and the Oedipus complex she criticised Sigmund Freud's concept of a female penis envy by claiming that girls do not envy the penis for its own sake, but as a revolt against the omnipotent mother. The wish to appropriate the paternal phallus and to depose the mother is the source of female guilt for Chasseguet-Smirgel.
In her essays about creativity and perversion, Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel compared the authentic work of an artist with the fetishistic "false" object of a pervert. Creativity of an artist implies that he overcomes his regressive desire to return to the perfection of primary narcissism by projecting his ego ideal on paternal models.
The pervert, however, succumbs to the "malady of the ideal" and preserves, often confirmed by his mother, the infantile illusion to own the idealized pregenital anal phallus and thus to be equal and even superior to his father. Chasseguet-Smirgel stressed a structurally necessary polarity of an anal-phallic-destructive maternal world of regression and perversion and a paternal world of structure, law and creativity.
The integration of these two worlds by Oedipal maturity, however, fails mostly. Sensitised by the fate of her own Jewish relatives who died in the Holocaust, Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel was particularly interested in psychoanalytic explanations of National Socialism. She interpreted the national socialist race ideology as the wish to expel aliens from the womb and to melt with the omnipotent mother represented by the group. Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel died of leukaemia at the age of At the end of the First World War, Maryse and her aunt moved to London, where she entered Girton College and studied philosophy and psychology.
In she began an analysis with Sigmund Freud in Vienna. After three sessions she broke off the treatment when Freud deduced from her dream that she was an illegitimate child - a fact that was confirmed by her aunt. She never learned who her parents were and assumed the name "Choisy" "Chosen". In she became a journalist with the magazine L'Intransigeant and occupied an important position in the intellectual and art world of Paris. Maryse Choisy was a pioneer of investigative journalism and researched undercover in a brothel for her book about prostitution, Un mois chez les filles , which caused a scandal upon its publication.
As a leftist and feminist she fought for the women's right to vote. Maryse Choisy married the journalist Maxime Clouzet, the father of her daughter, Colette, born in At the end of the s, she met Teilhard de Chardin and converted to Catholicism. The result of her search for a benediction for psychoanalysis from the Catholic Church was that Pius XII issued an approval of a "serious psychotherapy" as long as it did not look for sexual causes and violate the confession.
She hoped this review of psychoanalysis and the human sciences would counter the Freudian atheism with a synthesis of psychoanalysis and spirituality. Besides psychoanalytic topics, the review discussed the subjects acupuncture, graphology, eastern religions and cultural events. Maryse Choisy published numerous books, novels, poems, essays and reports as well as works popularising psychoanalysis.
In , she wrote her doctoral thesis about superstition, legends, manners and customs in in the Limousin region. In she was became a member of the SPP. Anne Clancier was particularly interested in the relationship between psychoanalysis and literature, which was also the subject of her lectures at the University of Nanterre and of numerous publications. Drawing on Charles Mauron's method of "psychocritique", a psychoanalytic literary criticism, she analysed the unconscious fantasies and personal myths of an author.
In analogy to the term of "contre-transfert", countertransference, she created the notion of "contre-texte", referring to the reader's reactions to the unconscious of the author. On the invitation of her aunt, she came for the first time to France at the age of She was analysed by the Swiss analyst Raymond de Saussure, who practised in New York from to In Margaret Clark-Williams came back to France, where she studied psychology with Daniel Lagache and received her clinical training from the child psychiatrist Georges Heuyer.
She underwent training analysis with Georges Parcheminey, her supervising analyst was John Leuba. Marie Bonaparte , who herself was a "lay analyst" without medical training, and Juliette Favez-Boutonier , the former medical director of the Claude-Bernard Centre, supported the case of Margaret Clark-Williams.
The trial beginning in caused a sensation. Clark-Williams was first acquitted, but a second verdict in found her guilty - a disaster for lay analysis. She completed her doctorate on the subject of baby diet and worked during the s as a physician at the Bretonneau hospital in Paris. In she, along with Marie Bonaparte and Georges Parcheminey, were opponents of a medicalisation of psychoanalysis by Sacha Nacht, then nominated director of the new Institut de Psychanalyse. Together with the liberal group of Daniel Lagache, Jacques Lacan and others, they formed a majority against Nacht, but the differences with Lacan were too great.
During a decisive session of the SPP, Odette Codet called for a motion of non-confidence against Lacan, which led to his dismissal as President of the SPP and the withdrawal of numerous members. Odette Codet herself was elected President of the SPP in , but due to illness she had to retire a year later. In it she highlighted the fact that conflicts increase in complexity with the age of the girl, and stressed that parental attitudes have a primordial role in the genesis and treatment of such conflicts.